International Anglican Liturgical Consultations
The international and ecumenical academy of liturgical scholars, Societas
Liturgica, meets every two years. Originally European, it has now become
a global organization. In 1983 Anglicans attending the congress of Societas
in Vienna met together as a caucus. Their conversations led to a resolve
to meet more regularly, at subsequent similar occasions.
- Children and Communion
Two years later some of the Anglican members of the congress of Societas
in Boston met to consider the issue of children and communion, noting that
the 1968 Lambeth Conference had asked the Provinces of the Communion to
examine the theology of initiation and admission to communion. The Consultation
reviewed existing practice, which varied widely in the Communion—from
provision in North American liturgical texts for communion of the newly
baptized at the time of their initiation to apparent disinterest in the
subject in some Provinces, with a variety of provisional, experimental,
and study schemes in between.
The Consultation noted that there was not yet a common theology of initiation
throughout the Communion, especially in relation to the practice of confirmation.
The Consultation also recognized that cultural considerations are an issue
in this field. However, members asked if these issues had encouraged Anglicans
to treat baptized children as if they were only catechumens, and whether
cultural factors could continue to be used to exclude children from the
The Consultation developed a brief but clear ecclesiological basis for
exploration of the question of children and communion, noting that, "The
church is the whole body of the faithful. It is created through baptism
into the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, which is the sign of faith
and of participation in God's act of redemption." Members
argued that the baptism of infants is baptism into the church's eucharistic
life, suggesting that, "it is paradoxical to admit children to membership
in the body of Christ through baptism, and yet to deny that membership
in the eucharistic meal that follows." Grasping
the nettle of inherited understandings of confirmation, the Consultation
noted that although the outline of Western medieval confirmation practice
was retained at the time of the Anglican Reformation, emphasis was shifted
from the administration of the outward rite to the catechizing which preceded
it. This, coupled with the appearance of a stricter discipline in the 19th
century, and a theology which affirmed confirmation as essential to the
completion of baptism, created in practice a barrier to the admission of
baptized children to communion.
Members of the Boston Consultation were open to the possibility of a
non-initiatory pastoral rite of confirmation, possibly preceded by a period
of instruction, with which the role of the bishop may still be associated.
However, members favoured, "an increased frequency in the occasions
when the bishop will preside at baptismal eucharists." The
Consultation was committed, in spite of local patterns and variations,
to the position that those admitted to communion be accepted as communicants
wherever they worship in the Anglican Communion.
The Consultation, while recognizing the existence of a wide variety
of marital, household, and cultural patterns, suggested the following pattern
for children with at least one baptized and believing parent.
The Consultation agreed on the following recommendations:
Members of the congregation should be involved in the preparation of
parents for the baptism of their children.
Parents should be the chief sponsors for their children and may be joined
by others. (Parents are responsible for the growth and nurture of their
children, it is thus particularly appropriate that they sponsor their children
whom they will nurture in the Christian life. In some cultures this role
is undertaken by others in the extended family.
The whole Christian community, which on one view is symbolized by the
other sponsors, and is exemplified by the congregation actually present
at the baptism, has a continuing responsibility for nurturing the baptized
by prayer, by example, and by support at worship in their discipleship.
This is well expressed in the question addressed to the congregation in
several Anglican baptismal rites, "Will you who witness these vows
do all in your power to support these persons in their life in Christ?"
In the baptismal eucharist the infant receives communion along with
his or her family.
that since baptism is the sacramental sign of full incorporation into
the church, all baptized persons be admitted to communion;
that provincial baptismal rites be reviewed to the end that such texts
explicitly affirm the communion of the newly baptized and that only one
rite be authorized for the baptism whether of adults or infants so that
no essential distinction be made between persons on basis of age;
that in the celebration of baptism the vivid use of liturgical signs
e.g. the practice of immersion and the copious use of water be encouraged;
that the celebration of baptism constitute a normal part of an episcopal
that anyone admitted to communion in any part of the Anglican Communion
be acknowledged as a communicant in every part of the Anglican Communion
and not be denied communion on the basis of age or lack of confirmation;
that the Constitution and Canons of each Province be revised in accordance
with the above recommendations; and that the constitution and Canons be
amended wherever they imply the necessity of confirmation for full church
that each Province clearly affirm that confirmation is not a rite of
admission to communion, a principle affirmed by the bishops at Lambeth
that the general communion of all the baptized assume a significant
place in all ecumenical dialogues in which Anglicans are engaged.
- Liturgical Formation
In 1987, an Anglican Liturgical Consultation met at Brixen, North Italy.
The subject was the formative role of liturgy in the life of the people
of God. Papers were presented on a variety of subjects including the formative
character of liturgy, the catechumenate, the liturgical ministry of the
laity, questions of presidency, inculturation, and mission.
The Brixen Consultation did not produce an itemized concluding statement
but the areas of its deliberations anticipated ongoing debate in the Communion
during the decade which has followed. The formative role of the Prayer
Book tradition on the life of the whole Communion has continued to concern
Anglicans who watch their traditional liturgical forms give way to regional
and contemporary patterns of worship expression. More specific and intentional
models of formation, e.g., the restoration of the catechumenate, continue
to be explored and debated. However, the Brixen consultation was a herald
of things to come in the attention it gave to two subjects of discussion.
First, the liturgical role of the laity—the subject of three of
the published papers—continues to capture attention, whether in the
radical form of proposals that lay people be authorized to preside at the
eucharist or in more modest questions relating to a multiplicity of functions
within the liturgical assembly and to the appropriate leadership of liturgical
assemblies when an ordained leader is not present.
Second, Elisha Mbonigaba's paper, "Indigenization of the Liturgy",
set the stage for a major continuing conversation in the Communion on the
subject of what is now usually called "inculturation". Touching
on questions of missionary history, cultural imperatives (Mbonigaba quotes
Anscar Chupungco, "The Church must incarnate herself in every race
as Christ incarnated himself in the Jewish race,"), cultural
complexity, forms of prayer, music, rites of passage, the use of local
commodities, and other matters, Mbonigaba opened a subject which was to
receive much more attention in the Communion in the ensuing years. In fact,
it was to be the subject of the next Consultation in 1989.
The York Consultation (1989) explored the subject of inculturation from
a number of points of view—Anglican identity and the cultural matrix
of the Prayer Book tradition, the relationship between formation and inculturation,
and specific cultural challenges ranging in location from Tanzania, Southern
Africa, India, Sri Lanka, and inner-city England. However, the stage for
the Consultation was perhaps set by an essay in which Victor Atta-Bafoe
(Ghana) and Philip Tovey (England) distinguished among indigenization (the
development of local leadership), adaptation (adjustment of essentially
Prayer Book forms to a new context), and inculturation. They defined inculturation
as, "the incarnation of the Christian life and message in a particular
cultural context in such a way that not only do local Christians find expression
for their faith through elements proper to their culture, but also that
faith and worship animate, direct and unify the culture. Inculturation
in this sense is the dialogue of gospel and culture."
The York Consultation produced a very substantial statement on the subject
of its exploration, which reflects members' awareness that, "liturgy
to serve the contemporary church should be truly inculturated," and
which underlines and expands two Lambeth Conference (1988) resolutions.
The York Statement identified the incarnation as God's self-inculturation
in this world, and in a particular cultural context. "Jesus' ministry
on earth includes both the acceptance of a particular culture," members
wrote, "and also a confrontation of elements in that culture. When
Jesus in turn commissions his disciples with "As the Father has sent
me, so I send you" they too are to pursue the mission which the Holy
Spirit gives them by relating to their society incarnationally. They are
to adapt themselves to different cultures ("as a Jew to the Jews,
as a Greek to the Greeks") but also to confront the culture where
it is contrary to the good news or to God's righteousness. Thus, just as
language forms change from one place or time to another, so the whole cultural
appropriateness of styles and expressions of worship should be ready to
22 CHRIST AND CULTURE
This Conference (a) recognizes that culture is the context in which
people find their identity; (b) affirms that ... the gospel judges every
culture ... challenging some aspects of the culture while endorsing others
for the benefit of the Church and the society; (c) urges the church everywhere
to work at expressing the unchanging gospel of Christ in words, actions,
names, customs, liturgies which communicate relevantly in each society.
- 47 LITURGICAL FREEDOM
This Conference resolves that each Province should be free, subject
to essential universal Anglican norms of worship, and to a valuing of traditional
liturgical materials, to seek that expression of worship which is appropriate
to the Christian people in their cultural context.
The Consultation noted that distinctive Anglicanism rests historically
on the adoption of common prayer expressed in the culture of the Reformation
period and on the asserted freedom of Churches and Provinces to develop
their own distinctive forms (Art. XXXIV). The resulting style has often
been treated as necessary to Anglican identity, although in fact it has
fostered cultural alienation in both urban England and rural Africa (and
elsewhere), and ecumenically as well. The Lambeth resolutions address this
The Consultation suggested that inculturation must affect the whole
ethos of worship, buildings, furnishings, art, music, and ceremonial as
well as texts. "True inculturation implies a willingness in worship
to listen to culture, to incorporate what is good and to challenge what
is alien to the truth of God. It has to make contact with the deep feelings
of people. It can only be achieved through an openness to innovation and
experimentation, an encouragement of local creativity, and a readiness
to reflect critically at each stage of the process .... The liturgy, rightly
constructed, forms the people of God, enabling and equipping them for their
mission of evangelism and social justice in their culture and society." The
Consultation emphasized the importance of liturgical scholarship and expertise
at the level of leadership, and encouraged a closer and more trusting relationship
between bishops and synods on one hand and well-equipped imaginative liturgists
on the other.
The Consultation cited a number of areas which should be examined for
their openness to inculturation: language, music, architecture, ceremonies,
sacramental elements, rites of passage, the relationship between worship
and identification with the oppressed, and agape meals.
Members of the Consultation agreed, "We would not want to suggest
that some 'tokenist' inclusion of a single local practice into an otherwise
alien liturgy will suffice. Nor is it necessary for a whole liturgical
event or series of events to be culturally monochrome: good liturgy grows
and changes organically and always has rich marks of its stages of historical
conditioning upon it, and in addition has often to serve truly multicultural
"In each Province and diocese Anglicans ought to examine their
degree of attachment to ways of worship which are required neither by the
gospel itself, nor by the local culture. We do not think that these criteria
should be set aside by a loyalty to some supposed general "Anglicanism",
for every expression of the gospel is culturally affected, and
what is viewed as general Anglicanism, if it can be identified, grew in
a very specific Western culture."
The Consultation suggested that "essential Anglican norms" are
largely those contained within the Lambeth Quadrilateral, and that the
use of vernacular language is foundational to inculturation. Differing
styles of worship may be necessary not only from one Province to another
but within Provinces, and special encouragement should be given to minority
groups to develop their own culture in worship.
Members agreed that there is danger in inertia, "and in failure
to recognize, understand, or value our own cultural context aright. Provinces
should be ready both to treasure their received ways and also to reflect
critically on them in the light of their own cultures. They should be wary
lest sheer conservatism in liturgy, or an over-dependence upon uses from
elsewhere, in fact become a vehicle of cultural alienation, making Anglican
worship a specialist cult, rather than a people's liturgy. Let us hold
fast to the essentials, and follow the cultural adaptability of the incarnation
of our Lord Jesus in everything else." The Statement concluded with
a request that Primates would report on inculturation to the Steering Committee
Thirty-one liturgical leaders signed the York statement, nearly double
the number who had met in Brixen two years before. It is perhaps a tribute
to the timing and penetrating content of their document that in 1991, when
the Consultation met in Toronto, the African participants, meeting separately,
agreed in a caucus of their own that the time had come to engage the subject
of inculturation on their own soil. Under the leadership of (now) Archbishop
David Gitari some 17 African liturgists and a number of observers met at
Kanamai (near Mombasa, Kenya) in 1993 to address issues of inculturation
in their own context. Their deliberations led to the formulation of "The
Kanamai Statement: African Culture and Anglican Liturgy,"
While the Kanamai conference and its statement are independent of the
International Anglican Liturgical Consultations, they clearly belong to
the same family of conversations and deserve not only the respectful attention
of the rest of the Communion but the careful study of Provinces in other
continents where people of diverse cultures long for the expression of
their own identity in their forms of worship. The Kanamai statement suggests
a simple method, outlined as a series of issues for consideration.
Teaching and training are needed so that
Listen to the needs of, and consult with, the whole body of
worshippers, young and old, male and female, rich and poor, rural and urban,
the literate and non-literate: what do they want to express before God,
Exercise caution in view of the diversity and dynamic nature
of African cultures: what helps one group today may hinder another, or
may be out of date tomorrow.
Seek insights from the work done by other Churches in the area,
bearing in mind the liturgical convergence seen in the last few decades.
Understanding the principles employed by the Christian liturgists
of the past, and the principles of worship in African traditional religion.
Recognize and study the liturgical inculturation which has
already taken place, formally and informally, in the previous generations,
as liturgies have been created, transmitted and used.
The conference suggested that liturgical inculturation should begin
with the structure of the rite rather than the text, and proposed guidelines
for preparing new liturgies and steps for implementation.
Every Christian may fully understand the words and symbols
used, and so be inspired to worship God in all he or she does.
Leaders of Worship may be sensitive to those whom they serve,
and to the symbols and values of local cultures, and may best utilize the
tools they are given.
Liturgical Specialists may appreciate the structure of our
liturgical inheritance, knowing what may be bult up, and what may be safely
Solomon Amusan, now Professor of Liturgy at Immanuel College, Ibadan,
put the work of the Kanamai conference in a framework primarily theological
but with political implications in an initial response published with the
conference documents. He wrote, "The struggle of the colonized countries
is aimed at human liberation, not only at the social, political and economic
levels, but especially at the religious level of life. Full liberation
based on biblical teachings has a more comprehensive character than political
liberation because it also involves spiritual freedom. This is why we now
speak of indigenization, contextualization, inculturation and liberation
of liturgy. It must be noted that "missionary Christianity," as
brought to Africa in general, developed its own appropriate theology —namely "colonial
theology," which has resulted in "imperialistic theology." Consequently
we are now witnessing liturgical imperialism which implies imposition of
foreign liturgy, thus discouraging the Africans from thinking about a concept
of liturgical practice of their own. Liturgy and liturgical theology lack
their full potential until they become deeply ingrained, virtually instinctive
and natural expressions of faith and of the nature of God for the people
who are actually worshipping. Admission to any form of indigenization,
adaptation, inculturation of English liturgy in this century is an admission
of the African liturgists of their failure to face the liturgical challenges;
for they have been forgetting that the English liturgy, with its theology,
as handed down by the missionaries, was shaped by the same community that
later produced those who imposed imperial domination upon Africa. Until
there is an appropriate African liturgical theology which will speak of
a God who is as truly the God of the Africans as the God of any other continent,
we cannot be really involved with Africans in the real sense, for the theology
of English rite defends the structure of their concept and culture. An
appropriate liturgical theology developed in the context of the African
situation will help the churches in Africa, and does not need indigenization
or adaptation or contextualization because it is enveloped within the African
concept of God."
A second conference on African culture and Anglican liturgy was held
at Kempton Park, South Africa, in November 1996.
The International Anglican Liturgical Consultation returned to the subject
of initiation at its meeting in Toronto in 1991. On this occasion 64 Anglican
liturgical leaders met, and for the first time a concerted effort had been
made in two Provinces at least to ensure the participation of representatives
from the "two-thirds world." The Consultation divided into four
sections to address the theology of initiation, the relationship of baptism,
mission, and ministry, the renewal of baptismal faith, and rites of initiation.
The statements of the four groups, presented to the plenary Consultation
in draft form for revision and subsequently edited and approved for publication
by the Steering Committee of the Consultation, have been published in Christian
Intiation in the Anglican Communion, and with related essays in Growing
in Newness of Life.
The findings of the Toronto Consultation, which should be studied in
detail, have been distilled in seven recommendations.
- The renewal of baptismal practice is an integral part of mission and
evangelism. Liturgical texts must point beyond the life of the church to
God's mission in the world.
- Baptism is for people of all ages, both adults and infants. Baptism
is administered after preparation and instruction of the candidates, or
where they are unable to answer for themselves, of their parent(s) or guardian(s).
- Baptism is complete sacramental initiation and leads to participation
in the eucharist. Confirmation and other rites of affirmation have a continuing
pastoral role in the renewal of faith among the baptized but are in no
way to be seen as a completion of baptism or as necessary for admission
- The catechumenate is a model for preparation and formation for baptism.
We recognize that its constituent liturgical rites may vary in different
- Whatever language is used in the rest of the baptismal rite, both the
profession of faith and the baptismal formula should continue to name God
as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
- Baptism once received is unrepeatable and any rites of renewal must
avoid being misconstrued as rebaptism.
- The pastoral rite of confirmation may be delegated by the bishop to
- Revising the Eucharist
As already noted, a concerted effort was made to guarantee that membership
in the Toronto Consultation would be more representative in terms of geography
and the cultural spectrum of the Communion than had been the case before.
However, it became apparent after Toronto that funds would not be available
on a voluntary basis in sufficient quantity to provide the same arrangements
every two years. It was therefore decided by the Steering Committee that
full Consultations would be held every four years, when every effort would
be made to ensure the widest possible representation, and that preparatory
conferences would be held at the intervening two-year points, composed
chiefly of Anglican members attending Societas Liturgica.
The first such conference was held at Untermarchtal, Germany, shortly
before the congress of Societas Liturgica in Fribourg, Switzerland. Forty
people attended. The conference received a number of papers, including
an influential submission by Thomas J. Talley on the structure of eucharistic
prayers. On the basis of its deliberations, the Steering Committee developed
a list of headings for consideration by the next full Consultation at Dublin
in 1995. They were,
The Dublin Consultation (1995) attracted nearly 80 participants who
worked, for a week, "towards the development of principles which would
inform the Communion during the next phase of liturgical revision and renewal." The
Consultation developed the following principles and recommendations.
Eucharistic Theology The development of a comprehensive
theology of the eucharist within the broad framework of a theology of church
and sacraments (including eschatological, paschal mystery, and ethical
dimensions) within which traditional Anglican points of tension will be
addressed, e.g., the role of the Spirit, offering, consecration, sacrifice,
Ministry, Order, and the Eucharist The ecclesiological
issues, i.e., the relationship of the eucharist to both the universal and
the local church and the implications of this relationship for practice,
i.e., who may participate? who may minister? who may preside? how may the
eucharist be extended? how may the eucharist be shared in ecumenical contexts?
The Structure of the Eucharist The structure of the
whole rite as well as the structure of the eucharistic prayer; the function
of the structure in conserving the tradition and the extent to which that
tradition may responsibly be stretched; proposed common eucharistic prayers
and possible models; a review of the guidelines proposed by Lambeth 1958
for Provinces revising their eucharistic liturgy.
Ritual, Language, and Symbolism The symbolic nature
of the eucharistic assembly and the inherent symbolism of the eucharistic
action; the implications of symbolism for the use of space, for iconography,
inculturation, inclusivity, vesture, gesture, and other ritual actions;
the essential components of the eucharist, its symbolic character, and
the significance of the symbols and their relationship to cultural contexts.
Liturgical and Eucharistic Renewal Liturgical education
for eucharistic renewal in both practice and spirituality, the resources
available and required, and curricula designed for teaching programs on
In the celebration of the eucharist, all the baptized are called to
participate in the great sign of our common identity as the people of God,
the body of Christ, and the community of the Holy Spirit. No baptized person
should be excluded from participating in the eucharistic assembly on such
grounds as age, race, gender, economic circumstance or mental capacity. (1)
In, through, and with Christ, the assembly is the celebrant of the eucharist.
Among other tasks it is appropriate for lay persons to play their part
in proclaiming the word, leading the prayers of the people, and distributing
communion. The liturgical functions of the ordained arise out of pastoral
responsibility. Separating liturgical function and pastoral oversight tends
to reduce liturgical presidency to an isolated ritual function. (6)
The church needs leaders who are themselves open to renewal and are
able to facilitate and enable it in community. This should affect the liturgical
formation of laity and clergy, especially bishops as leaders of the local
community. Such continuing formation is a priority and adequate resources
for it should be provided in every Province. (8)
Faith and Practice
In the future, Anglican unity will find its liturgical expression not
so much in uniform texts as in a common approach to eucharistic celebration
and a structure which will ensure a balance of word, prayer, and sacrament,
and which bears witness to the catholic calling of the Anglican communion. (2)
The sacrificial character of all Christian life and worship must be
articulated in a way that does not blur the unique atoning work of Christ.
Vivid language, symbol, and metaphor engage human memory and assist the
eucharistic action in forming the life of the community. (4)
In the eucharist, we encounter the mystery of the triune God in the proclamation
of the word and the celebration of the sacrament. The fundamental character
of the eucharistic prayer is thanksgiving and the whole eucharistic prayer
should be seen as consecratory. The elements of memorial and invocation
are caught up within the movement of thanksgiving. (5)
The embodied character of Christian worship must be honoured in proclamation,
music, symbol, and ritual. If inculturation is to be taken seriously, local
culture and custom which are not in conflict with the Gospel must be reflected
in the liturgy, interacting with the accumulated inculturation of the tradition. (7)
Vocation and Ministry
The eucharistic action models the way in which God as redeemer comes
into the world in the Word made flesh, to which the people of God respond
by offering themselves -- broken individuals - to be made one body in Christ's
risen life. This continual process of transformation is enacted in each
Celebrating the eucharist involves both reaffirming the baptismal commitment
to die to self and be raised to newness of life, and embodying that vision
of the kingdom in searching for justice, reconciliation and peace in the
community. The Spirit who calls us into one body in Christ equips and sends
us out to live this divine life. (9)
- Finland 1997
A second preparatory conference will be held in conjunction with a congress
of Societas Liturgica at Järvenpää, Finland, in August 1997.
Responding to a number of suggestions, the Steering Committee has planned
for a discussion on some of the theological and liturgical issues relating
to ordination, with a view to fuller discussion at a Consultation in 1999.
Invitations have been issued, chiefly to Anglican members of Societas,
and papers have been invited. The areas of discussion have been identified
Nature of order in the church Ontology, function, teleology,
episcope, presbyterate, diakonia. The ministry of the whole church (apostolicity,
priesthood, prophetic witness, servant model of the kingdom etc.) as enabled
by the ordered (structured) ministry (bishops, priests, deacons). (Other
special issues include proposals for lay presidency at the eucharist.)
Imparting ministry within the church Appointment/commissioning/ordaining.
Evaluation and critique of received and current rites and practices in
election/selection, secondary rites, examination, hand-laying-with-prayer,
Ecumenical questions for the future of the church Issues
of recognition (Rome/Orthodoxy); issues of uniting (post-Reformation churches).
The nature and meaning of succession. (Other special issues include the "repair" of
breached succession, recognition/non-recognition of a bishop on such grounds
as gender, supposed hetero-doxy, absenteeism; the recognition of a bishop
or priest received from another de-nomination, the recognition/non-recognition
of a presbyter on such grounds as gender etc.)
- India 1999
The Consultation scheduled for Kottayam, India, in the summer of 1999
ran into problems even before it convened. A number of members were denied
visas and some did not receive them in time to travel. Almost on the eve
of the event, officials of the Indian government informed the chair that
he was forbidden to convoke a Consultation as planned. The assembly quickly
moved to accept a recommendation of the Steering Committee that the current
meeting not be deemed to be a full Consultation and that a full Consultation
should be held in 2001 when formal statements might be adopted.
In spite of the shadow which these events cast over the Kottayam meeting,
members grappled with the issues before them. They divided into three groups
to address (1) the structure of ordination liturgies, (2) theological issues,
(3) and the processes of discernment of vocation and preparation for ordination.
The group working on structural issues affirmed the centrality of a baptismal
ecclesiology and the laying on of hands. They wrestled with the forms in
which these emphases should be expressed. Members working on theology addressed
such issues as the relationship of orders to particular church structures
(like parish and diocese), the ambiguous nature of the word priest (especially
in English), the role of the deacon, and the nature of validity. The group
working on discernment and preparation explored the relationship of culture
and ministry and the meaning of call as it is used in relation to ordination.
The work of the groups was subjected plenary criticism and it became
apparent that the task required more work than the present assembly could
complete in the prevailing time frame and circumstances. The group leaders
proposed the formation of an editorial committee who would work on the
material produced and refined by the groups and in the light of plenary
criticism. A preliminary draft would be circulated and members were urged
to submit their comments on it before the end of February 2000. This process
is on schedule at the time of writing.
- Structural Matters
The International Anglican Liturgical Consulta-tions began as an independent
meeting of Anglican liturgists who found themselves in the same place.
A more formal relationship with the "instruments" of the Communion,
and especially with the ACC, has developed over the years. The Council
has repeatedly commended the findings of the Consultations for study. The
Joint Meeting of Primates and the ACC (Cape Town) author-ized the Coordinator
for Liturgy to seek financial support for the work of the Consultations,
which led to a generous response for the work of the Steering Committee
and for the support of "two-thirds world" participants at Dublin.
The Coor-dinator for Liturgy provides secretarial support for the Consultations
and their Steering Committee.
In the meantime, the Consultations were developing a more organized
structure for themselves. What had begun as a conversation among friends
eventually required some organizational order. The York Consultation (1989)
adopted Guidelines (revised in 1995) to define the task of the Consultations,
to provide for a Steering Committee and for other procedures.
It is important to note that the Consultations perform in
fact the tasks which were envisioned by ACC-7 for a commission which
was never established. They began as a caucus of Anglicans at the biennial
congress of Societas Liturgica, the ecumenical academy. They have
now expanded into major meetings with broad representation every four years,
and small conferences at the intervening two-year points. They have the
disadvantage of a self-selecting system of representation which favours
affluent regions of the Communion. On the other hand, they have the advantage
of a much broader range of expertise than a small commission could hope
to assemble, and they create a large network of informed participants who
can carry their message more deeply into the church's life.
The continued effectiveness of the Consultations depends on at least
three factors. First, sufficient Provincial support to make it possible
for an authentic representation of the Communion to be present at their
deliberations, and to enable the Steering Committee to meet and perform
its tasks. Second, commitment on the part of Provincial leadership to study
and respond to the documents they produce. And third, initiative on the
part of Provincial leadership in identifying areas of concern for their
14 February 2000
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A Kingdom of Priests: Liturgical
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Bramcote, Nottingham, 1988.
Findings of the Third International
Anglican Liturgical Consultation, ed. David R. Holeton, Grove Books,
Bramcote, Nottingham, 1989.
Liturgical Inculturation in
the Anglican Communion, ed. David R. Holeton, Grove Books, Nottingham,
Anglican Liturgical Inculturation
in Africa, ed. David Gitari, Grove Books Limited, Bramcote, Nottingham,
Christian Initiation in the
Anglican Communion, ed. David R. Holeton, Grove Books, Bramcott, Nottingham,
Growing in Newness of Life:
Christian initiation in Anglicanism today, ed. David R. Holeton, Anglican
Book Centre, Toronto, 1993.
Revising the Eucharist: Groundwork
for the Anglican Communion, ed. David R. Holeton, Grove Books, Bramcote,
Renewing the Anglican Eucharist,
ed. David R. Holeton, Grove Books, Bramcote, Nottingham, 1996.
Children at the Table,
ed. Ruth A. Meyers, The Church Hymnal Corporation, New York, 1995.
Anglican Orders and Ordinations, ed.,
David R. Holeton, Alcuin/GROW Liturgical Study 39, Cambridge, Grove Books,
and Communion, Grove Books Limited, 1985, p. 2.
Mbonigaba, "Indizenization of the Liturgy," in A Kingdom
of Priests: Liturgical Formation of the People of God, ed. Thomas
J. Talley, Grove Books, Bramcote, Nottingham, 1988, p. 41.
R. Atta-Bafoe and Philip Tovey, "What does inculturation mean," in Liturgical
Inculturation in the Anglican Communion, ed. David R. Holeton, Grove
Books, Nottingham, 1990, p. 14. The authors attribute their definition
to Pedro Arrupe through A. Shorter.
Kanamai Statement," in Anglican Liturgical Inculturation in Africa,
ed. David Gitari, Grove Books Limited, Bramcote, Nottingham, 1994, pp 37-48.
Initiation in the Anglican Communion, ed. David R. Holeton, Grove
Books, Bramcott, Nottingham, 1991, and Growing in Newness of Life:
Christian initiation in Anglicanism today, ed. David R. Holeton, Anglican
Book Centre, Toronto, 1993.
the Eucharist: Groundwork for the Anglican Communion, ed. David R.
Holeton, Grove Books, Bramcote, Nottingham, 1994.
the Anglican Eucharist: Findings of the Fifth International Anglican Liturgical
Consultation, ed. David R. Holeton, Grove Books, Bramcote, Nottingham,
1996, p. 5.
Principles and Recommendations have been reordered, with headings, in appropriate
groups. The original order is indicated by numbers in brackets. See Renewing
the Anglican Eucharist, p. 6f.
of the Third International Anglican Liturgical Consultation, ed. David
R. Holeton, Grove Books, Bramcote, Nottingham, 1989.