The Church of North India (CNI) has signed MOU with Gujarat State Management Authority in Partnership, for complete village development in Village Mavnugam, Taluka - Jodiya, District Jamnagar. In order to complete the Project successfully, CNI Gujarat Diocese has appointed M/s Artefact Projects (a Unit of Artefact Software & Finance Ltd.) Nagpur as Project Management Consultants. The team of project experts consisting of Engineers and Architects of M/s. Artefact Projects has visited the proposed Mavnugam Village. The location of this new village to be planned is on State Highway joining Jamnagar to Kandla Port Trust with its 2-Lane Road.
The team of Engineers and Architects had visited the location and studied the type of land. This land is being presently used for cultivation purpose. Since the type of soil of this land is black cotton soil, after thorough investigation and testing, it is proposed to construct all structures in frame type method i.e. slab, beam & column. These houses will be constructed using earthquake and cyclone resistant technology using local material and village labourers. Thus, construction activities itself will create opportunities to employ and train local people as Masons, Carpenters, etc.
The CNI is constructing 164 numbers of houses for this village. In addition to this proposal of construction of one school building, one Panchayat Office and one Primary Health Centre. As per MOU with G.E.R.C. under Package (I), the minimum infrastructure for each village will compromise of water supply system, sewage disposal and internal roads with approach to Main Road and electrical wiring for all houses. All houses will be single storied and will be constructed using brick masonry. The dimensions of the houses will be 30, 40 and 50 sq.meters as per categorization. The construction will be carried out as per Indian Standard Specification & National Building Codes. In this standard, the specified features of design and construction for earthquake resistant of buildings of conventional types are covered. Recommendations regarding restrictions on opening, provision of steel at beam, column and slab junctions will be based on design calculations made using seismic coefficient and the ductility of steel reinforcements.
The details of houses to be constructed is as follows:-
|Sl No||Category||Type||Plot Area (m2)||Built-up Area (m2)||No of Families|
|2||Farmers holding land upto 1 hectare||B||150||30||12|
|3||Farmers holding land between 1 hectare to 4 hectare||C||250||40||63|
|4||Farmers holding land above 4 hectares||D||400||50||44|
TOTAL Nos. of Family 164
The total land available for this Village Rehabilitation Project is 70478 m2. Planning is made in layout in such way that plot holders having area of 400 sqm. are adjacent to the State Highway, whereas the plot holders having area of 250, 150 & 100 m2 are arranged inside the layout. This will improve the architectural features while looking from Main Road, Planning is done with proper internal roads, lanes, open spaces & community facilities. Every house is planned in such way that there is a scope for future expansion. The plinth level of house will be at least 600mm above the internal road. Complete drainage facility will be provided to drain out the storm water. The school is planned in such way that it will have one adjacent playground. The width of main road will be 10.5 m. The width of internal road will be 9.0, 7.5 or 6.0 metre. The plantation will be done along both sides of this main road. The internal roads are planned in such a way that they are enough to allow two bullock carts or jeep cum tractor to cross.
The houses are arranged in rows with road on front side. Other open spaces are provided in Central area of village. This can be utilised for various common purpose such as social gathering, fair and melas. Provision has also been made in village for community facilities such as Panchayat Ghar, School, Primary Health Centre etc. The provision is also made for plantation of trees on these common plots with participation of villagers. The location of the plots is decided in such a way that these people will live comfortable according to their professions. Thus, all 44 numbers of plot holders of more or less same profession are on one side of the village. While designing the houses as per the requirement of the villagers, all doors are kept 1.2 m wide in order to have free movement of their storage boxes containing agricultural product.
Sufficient ventilation is provided by means of windows and ventilators. For this total area of ventilation is kept about 10 - 15% of floor area. Kitchen is provided with sufficient shelf space with kitchen platform for chullah or cooking unit. Latrine & Bathroom are separately provided for each unit with arrangement for proper disposal of both excreta and sullage. Sufficient front space is provided on front side of house for cattle-shed and bullock cart. All houses are separate from each other as per the villagers requirement. The foundations of all houses are isolated type foundation with column, beam and slab arrangement. The other details of infrastructure are described in length subsequently.
Following points will be followed while designing the houses:-
Traditional buildings constructed with locally available material are of more prone to earthquake failure. Earthquake damage depends upon many parameters including focus and epicenter, intensity, duration & frequency of earthquake, contact of ground motion, Geologic & Soil condition, quality construction, etc. The building design must be such as to ensure that the building has adequate strength, high ductility & will remain one unit and within elastic limit even while subjected to very large deformations.
Though we cannot diminish direct earthquake, we can do much to reduce risks & thereby reduce disasters provided the design should incorporate the I.S codes and specifications applicable to Earthquake & Cyclone resistant structures. During visit of our expert, buildings constructed on load bearing wall foundation is found to be collapsed. The standing examples in this village is bus shelter, school, temple, house constructed in the same village.
Following properties and parameters are most important from the point of view of seismic design:-
Considering all the above points, a frame structure will be more suitable for present condition of soil. Also frame structure has more ability to bear sway and vibrations by large extent without collapse. Whereas, the load bearing structure are more brittle and hence they have more tendency to crack even after provision of reinforcement for tie-up. This additional reinforcement can add ductility to some extent in load bearing structure. Whereas, the reinforced concrete structure such as column, beam, slab can be more ductile by proper use of reinforced steel and closely spaced steel ties.
While planning the building, the important features of building for earthquake proof is that, it should be symmetrical in overall shape. The buildings of square or rectangular shape in plan are stronger than that one with 'L' shape. An irregular shaped building will twist as it shakes, increasing the damage. Our design for 30, 40 and 50 sqm. houses are planned keeping this aspect in mind. In general, opening in walls of buildings tends to weaken the walls and fewer the opening, lesser the damage it will have during the earthquake.
Isolated footing columns is likely to be subjected to differential settlement, particularly when the supporting round consists of different or soft type of soil. Keeping this in mind, all the footings will be taken upto the firm soil level about 1.5 m. below the existing ground level. Appropriate soil investigation is done for this purpose to decide bearing capacity and nature of soil. The top layer of soil is avoided for foundation.
The different unit of houses are described in details hereunder:-
'A' Type Houses:
Government has approved the proposal of allotting a land of 100 Sqm. The total built-up area for these houses will be 30 sqm. with toilet. This type of building comprises one hall of size 2.54 x 2.98 m, one bedroom of size 2.77 m x 2.85 m and one kitchen of size 2.77 x 2.00 m. It is provided with one bathroom and W/C having size 1.2 m x 1.2 m and 1.2 m x 0.9 m respectively. The location of this house is made in such a way that a minimum of 1.5 m distance is on backside with front margin of 0.90 m. The side margins of this type of house is 1.06 m. Open verandah on front side is provided to them for enjoying open air and sun. This structure is designed for earthquake as well as cyclone forces. The structure has provision of G + 1 considering the future requirement so that the villagers can themselves construct other rooms as and when money is available. The front door of this house will be kept as 1.2m wide. The detailed specifications for this house will be described later on.
'B' Type Houses:
The type 'B' houses are same as that of type 'A' except the plot size is 150 sqm. The back side margin of these houses are 3.0mtrs. The side margins are about 2.00 mtrs. The front margin is 4.40 mtrs. The other features are same as that of type 'A' houses.
'C' Type Houses:
Under this category the size of allotted plot is 250 sqm. The builtup area of these houses is about 40sqm. This type of building comprises one hall of size 3.25 x 2.54m, two bedrooms of size 2.4 x 2.54 m & 2.4 x 2.77 m, and one kitchen of size 2.33 x 2.77m. One W/C and bathroom is provided with a passage having size of 1.2 x 0.9 m and 1.2 x 1.2 m respectively. The passage will have the width of .90 m. A small open varandah is also provided on front side with steps for main entrance. The back margin of this house is 3.0m whereas the front margin is 11.0 m. The side margins are approximately 6.0 m. The structure has provision of G + 1 floor for future expansion. The structure is designed for earthquake & cyclone forces.
'D' Type Houses:
Under this category the size of allotted plot is 400 sqm. The builtup area of these houses is about 50sqm. This type of building comprises one hall of size 3.51 x 4.0m two bedrooms of size 2.7 x 2.4m & 2.7 x 3.0m, and one kitchen of size 3.51 x 3.11m. One W/C and bathroom is provided with a passage having size of 1.2 x 0.9m & 1.2 x 1.2 m respectively. The back margin of this house is 3.0m whereas the front margin is 7.0 m. The side margins are approximately 6.6 m. The structure has provision of G + 1 floor for future expansion. The structure is designed for earthquake & cyclone forces.
The task of reconstruction of village infrastructure also needs to be taken up on priority basis in order to restore basic amenities and facilities necessary for regular functioning of village. This is also a primary condition attached by the Government for allotment of villages to the N.G.O. under Package - I. Infrastructure for each village comprises one Primary School, one Panchayat Office and one Primary Health Centre with water supply, sewage / drainage disposal system, electric supply etc. In addition to this, kuchha roads of W.B.M. along with approach to the main road is also required.
It is proposed to construct a school in this village since the earlier school is totally damaged in earthquake and is also beyond repair. This school will be essentially a middle school i.e. upto 7th standard in order to meet the villager's requirements. This building will have an area of 1600 sqft. with 4 classrooms & one room each for school office, one Big Hall is provided for Balwadi. This school will be in frame structure, incorporating Earthquake and Cyclone Resistance Specifications according to IS Code.
Panchayat Office plays an important role for smooth functioning of local Self Government. It is proposed to construct two rooms for office & one big hall with toilet block. The total area of this building will be approximately 820 sqft. This building is also in frame structure with Earthquake & Cyclone Resistance Technology.
Primary Health Centre
The C.N.I. is already providing medical services to the benefit of all persons irrespective of caste, creed, community or nationality. For this service, a Primary Health Centre of an area approximately 520 sq.ft. is also planned for this model village. This building will have one Dispensary, a check-up room & waiting area.
In layout, planning of Main Road with 10.5m width & Internal Road with 9.0, 7.5m & 6.0m width is provided. All weather internal roads will be provided with approach to main road. The average width of the road will be 5.5 m. The road will be WBM type as per standard specification of I.R.C. Two main entrance in layout is provided with width of 10.5 m with other two cross roads of 10.5 m & 9.0 m width. The other internal road has width of 6.0 m & 9.0 m depending upon its length.
Sewage & Drainage System:
Brick or stone masonry drains will also be constructed with necessary designs, slopes, along the roads to drain out the water/surface water from the houses & roads. The total length of this drainage, is approximately 3.5 Kms. The sewage from the toilets can be carried out by means of S.W. pipe to the Septic Tanks provided at two locations. The septic tanks are designed for capacity of existing villagers with sludge removal, each after one year. The required diameter of S.W. Pipeline will be laid from each W.C. and will be finally connected to Septic tank.
ESR. & UG Water Storage Reseroir & Water Supply
In order to provide water in the reconstructed village, it is proposed to construct elevated water storage reservoir of capacity 1,00,000 litres, with underground sump of 25,000 litres capacity. The water received from hand pumps, wells & from Government through tankers, will be first collected in underground sump. This water will be lifted in elevated storage reservoir by means of centrifugal pumps. This water through E.S.R., will be then distributed by means of G.I. pipe line to villagers. This water pipe line to be laid in this village, will be measured approximately 3.5 kms. Water will be delivered to the villagers by this pipeline with taps provided at strategic locations.
Overhead electric wires are presently available for this proposed Mavnugam Village. Taking advantage of this electric supply line, road is planned so that electrical points can be arranged from this line with Transformer Room in one of the community plot as shown in layout. Illumination for other roads will be provided, which will be controlled from this transformer room. A provision of 35 Nos. of M.S. Electric pole with tube light is made for this proposed village.
The brief specifications proposed for construction of 164 Nos. of houses, Panchayat office, school building, Primary Health Centre will be as follows: Structure: Frame Structure in M-15 (1:2:4) concrete confirmed to I.S Code, IS 456-2000 IS 1893-1984IS 13920-1993 Designed for Earthquake & Cyclone forces. Footing: Isolated type footing at a depth of about 1.5 m below ground level. Clear Height: Clear inside height of the building will be 3.0m. Brickwork: All outer walls in 230mm B.B. Masonry walls confirmed to I.S Code.All inside walls in 115mm B.B. Masonry walls confirmed to I.S Code. Doors & Windows: Main doors to have pressed steel door frame with two leaf shutters. Other doors to have M.S. Angle frame with wooden ply single leaf shutters. All windows will be in Mild Steel 'Z' section with mullion as per standard design. Plastering: All inside walls will have plain Fanty plaster. All outside walls will have rough sand faced plaster. Flooring: All rooms to have I.P.S. type flooring. Toilets and bathrooms to have white glazed local tile flooring. Painting: Inside walls to have dry distemper painting with lime wash for ceiling. Outside walls to have Snowcem finish. All doors & windows to have synthetic enamel paint finish. Water-supply: All buildings will be provided with 12.5mm dia. G.I. Pipe lining with bibcock at strategic locations as shown in layout. Electric Supply: All rooms will have one light point, one fan point & one plug point supply.
The Bar Chart
The Bar Chart shows all the activities necessary for completion of the project, right from the receipt of work order to the completion of Project. All important milestones are summarised in the Bar Chart.
The bar chart shows entire activity to be carried out in 138 days. The construction of small units will be taken on priority basis. The frame structure for this building will be completed within 15 calendar days including slab. Thus, thereafter other works such as plinth brickwork, filling, brickwork in superstructure will be started immediately. After curing of 7 days for brickwork, the third gang of masons will start internal as well as outer plaster. The next stage is flooring & finishing. The task of flooring will be taken first, thereafter painting work will be started. The other finishing items such as kitchen platform, water closet flooring, sanitary & plumbing lines, door shutters, window grills, glasses, electrification, etc. will be carried out in sequence. Thus 57 nos. of houses will be completed in 30 calendar days. Meanwhile, after completion of framework of these 57 Nos. of houses in first 15 calendar days, second type i.e. 'C' type houses will be constructed in next 30 calendar days. Thereafter, 44 quarters will be completed on same line.
During this stage, road work, drainage and sewage line, septic tanks & work of E.S.R. will go simultaneously. Any balance work will be completed in next 15 days.
The speed and quality of construction will be controlled by systematic approach and accuracy of all items of work will be controlled at each stage. Breaking & removing will be completely avoided as far as possible. Depending upon magnitude of job and time available, the quantum of form work will be decided keeping in mind the least cost of shuttering. The specifications laid down for the construction of the houses are such that, maintenance cost will be expected to be minimum. Thus financial burden of carrying out repairs will not be borne by the occupants.
The reconstruction of Earthquake Resistant Houses & other infrastructure will be undertaken by C.N.I. as per the guidelines of Government of Gujarat Earthquake Rehabilitation Committee. C.N.I. will be providing 100% funding for reconstruction activities from its fund.
The total estimated cost of this Village Rehabilitation Project is Rs. 4.00 Crores. This comprises of cost of houses, school building, Panchayat office, primary health centre, roads, sewage and drainage system and electric supply.
This total cost is summarised as under:-
Sl. No. Particulars Units Quantity/Total Area (sqm.) Estimated cost (Rs. Lacs) 1. Houses (30, 40, 50 sqm.) 164 Nos. 6430.00 276.49 2. School Building 1 No. 150.05 6.45 3. Panchayat Office 1 No. 76.10 3.27 4. Primary Health Centre 1 No. 48.10 2.06 5. Roads Km. 2.0 16.00 6. Sewage & Drainage System Mtr. 3500 8.00 7. Electric Supply Lumpsum -- 10.00 8. Pipeline for water supply Mtr. 3500 12.00 9. Elevated storage reservoir (E.S.R.) & Underground Storage Sump 1 No. 1,00,000 Ltr.&25,000 Ltr. 7.00 10 Administrative Fee &super vision Expenses Lump sum 35.00 11 Contingency (5%) 23.73 TOTAL 400.00 Break-up of Estimated cost of Each type of house (164 units): The detail estimated cost of houses is as under:- Sl. No. Category Unit(Nos) Area of each unit Sq.ft Estimated Unit Cost (Rs.) Estimated Total Cost (Rs.Lacs) 1 A 45 322.50 1,29,000 58.05 2. B 12 322.50 1,29,000 15.48 3. C 63 430.00 1,72,000 108.36 4. D 44 537.50 2,15,000 94.60 Grand Total 276.49
Estimated cost of Road:
The road has a total length of 2.0 kms. approximately, including approach to the main road. The average width of the road is 5.5m. The road will be surfaced with W.B.M. using stone aggregate as binding material consolidated with roller of 8-10 tonne capacity. The total estimated cost of this road is Rs.16 Lakhs.
Estimated cost of E.S.R. & Underground SUMP
In order to provide water in reconstructed village, it is proposed to construct Elevated Storage Reservoir (E.S.R.) of 1 lakh ltr. capacity. This ESR will be an RCC frame structure resting on column footings. An electric pump will be provided to transfer water in ESR from underground sump. The total estimated cost of this ESR and underground sump is Rs. 7.0 Lakhs.
Estimated cost of Water Supply:
The water-supply to the villagers will be through the pipeline to be laid along the roads with taps provided at strategic locations. These pipelines to be laid in this village, will measure approximately 3500 running metres. The total cost of this water supply pipeline is Rs.12 Lakhs.
Estimated cost of Drainage & Sewage Disposal:
In order to effectively drain out the storm water, a provision is made of brick / stone masonry drains. This will measure approximately 3500 running metre. This is constructed with necessary slope along the road lines to drain out waste, surface water from houses in addition to storm water. Sewage disposal will be through S.W. Pipe of required diameter to the septic tanks provided at strategic location as shown in layout. The total length of this sewage disposal line with masonry chambers at required location is 3500 mtrs.
Estimated cost of Electric Supply:
It is proposed to provide electric points on road at required location. The total cost of this electric supply line with lights will be approximately Rs. 10 Lakhs. This includes provision of M.S. pole at strategic locations.